New Forest timber and the Navy
Place of publication is
A. V., ‘The oeconomy of the navy and
N., 'An historical and ecological study of inclosed and uninclosed woods in
the New Forest, Hampshire', Ph.D. thesis,
R.J.B. ‘The Royal Dockyards in
M.J. 'The naval administration of the fourth Earl of Sandwich', D. Phil.
P. 'The British naval port system '. Ph.D. thesis,
J.D. 'An Economic History of Woodlands in Southern England, 1700-1914', Ph.D. thesis,
Committee Who Were Appointed to Enquire in What Manner His Majesty's Navy May be More Effectually Supplied with Naval Stores. Journals of the House of Commons (1803 reprint) 38, 1116-7. 20 June 1782. …And also, That there be laid before this House, at the Beginning of the next Session of Parliament, an Account of the Quantities of Oak, Elm, Beech, and Fir Timber, the Growth of this Kingdom, delivered into His Majesty's several Dock Yards between the 1st Day of January 1772 and the 1st Day of January 1782; distinguishing each Sort, and the Year, and the Value: Also an Account of the Quantities of Oak, Elm , Beech, and Fir Timber, of Foreign Growth, imported into this Kingdom between the 1st Day of January 1772 and the 1st Day of January 1782, distinguishing the Places from whence they came, the Sort, the Year, and the Value. [never published; but see NMM. ADM/BP/3-6a]
‘First report of the commissioners of his Majesty's woods, forests, and land revenues; in obedience to the Acts of 34 George III. Cap.75. and 50 George III. Cap.65’. 1812 [second report 1816 etc]. Also published as Parliamentary Papers.
‘How His Majesty’s navy may be better supplied with timber’, 1771, Reports of Committees to the House of Commons 1715-1801, vol. III, pp. 15-72, 1803.
PP. HC. 1802-3 (109) iv, 173. Commission of naval enquiry, 3rd report: contracts-blockmakers, coopers.
PP. HC 1806, (3), v, 1. Committee for revising affairs of the navy. 11, general instructions for officers of the dockyards: 18, resident commissioner: 25, masters attendant: 39, master shipwright: 53, clerk of the check: 66, storekeepers: 78, clerks of survey: 88, clerks at ropeyards.
PP, HC. 1806, (8) v, 1. Report of the committee on the revision of the system of receipt and expenditure and government of the civil departments of the navy; 1st report- dockyards.
PP, HC. 1806, (309) vii, Reports on Fees, gratuities, perquisites and emoluments which are or have been lately received in the several public offices. Reports made between the years 1786 and 1788 on… the Admiralty, Treasury of the Navy, Commissioners of the Navy, Dockyards, 1793:
-Third Report upon the Office of the Treasurer of the Navy, 10th January 1788:
- Fourth Report upon the Office of the Treasurer of the Navy, 10th January 1788:
- Fifth Report upon the Office of the Commissioners of the Navy, dated 14th February 1788:
- Sixth Report upon the Dock Yards, 10th March 1788:
- Seventh Report upon the Office for the Care of sick and wounded Seamen, 20th March 1788:
- Eighth Report upon the Victualling Office, 17th April 1788:
- Ninth Report upon the Naval and Victualling Departments established at Foreign or distant Ports, 1st May 1788.
PP, HC. 1854, (377) x, 193. Report from the Select Committee on Crown Forests: together with the proceedings of the Committee, minutes of evidence, appendix and index.
'Report of the Committee Who Were Appointed to Enquire in What Manner His Majesty's Navy May be More Effectually Supplied with Naval Stores', Journals of the House of Commons (1803 reprint) 38, 1116-1117. 1782
and condition of woods, forests, and land revenue of the Crown and to sell or
alienate fee farm and other unimproveable rents. 11th Report. Supply of naval
timber', Journals of the House of
Commons (1803 reprint), Vol. 43, 559-632. 1788. Reprinted in Lambert, S. (ed.), House of Commons Sessional papers
of the 18th century, vols. 76-8,
'State and condition of woods, forests, and land revenue of the Crown and to sell or alienate fee farm and other unimproveable rents. 6th Report. Alice Holt and Woolmer forests', Journals of the House of Commons (1803 reprint), Vol. 45, 120-180. 1790.
and condition of woods, forests, and land revenue of the Crown and to sell or
alienate fee farm and other unimproveable rents. 5th Report.
and condition of woods, forests, and land revenue of the Crown and to sell or
alienate fee farm and other unimproveable rents. 13th Report.
'State of timber for, and means by which a better supply may be obtained for the Navy', Journals of the House of Commons (1803 reprint), vol. 33, 365. 1771.
'The First Report of the Surveyor General of His Majesty's Land Revenue, in obedience to the Directions of an Act of Parliament, passed in the Thirty-fourth Year of His Majesty's Reign, intituled, ''An Act for the better Management of the Land Revenue of the Crown, and for the Sale of Fee Farm and other unimproveable Rents"', Journals of the House of Commons (1803 reprint) Vol. 53, 180-229. 1798.
importation. Petition of master shipwrights, mastmakers, carpenters and
Printed primary sources
G. R., and Owen, J. (eds.) The private papers of John, Earl of
Baugh, D. (ed.), Naval administration 1715-1750. Navy Records Society, vol. 120, 1977.
Bentham, S., Answers to the Comptroller's Objections, &c. &c. [A reply to the objections raised by the Comptroller of the Navy to an Admiralty report on a plan of reforms in the management of the dockyards.], 1800.
D. (ed.). Letters of Admiral of the
Fleet the Earl of
E. and Prynne, W. Brief animadversions on
amendments of, & additional explanatory records to, the Fourth part of
the Institvtes of the lawes
Historical Manuscripts Commission. House of Lords MSS, N.S. 7, 1706-8.
Knight, R.J.B. (comp.),
R.J.B. (comp.), Shipbuilding timber for
the British Navy: Parliamentary papers, 1729-1792. Scholars' facsimiles
& reprints, vol. 482,
Laughton, J.K. (ed.), Letters and papers of Charles, Lord Barham Admiral of the Red Squadron 1758-1813. Navy Records Society, vols. 38 & 39, 1907-11.
Manwood, J. A treatise of the laws of the forest wherein is declared not only those laws, as they are now in force, but also the original and beginning of forests, and what a forest is in its own proper nature, and wherein the same doth differ from a chase, a park or a warren, with all such things as are incident or belonging thereunto, with the several proper terms of art : also a treatise of the pourallee, declaring what pourallee is, how the same first began, what a pouralee-man may do, how he may hunt and use his own pourallee, how far he may pursue and follow after his chase : together with the limits and bounds, as well of the forest, as the pourallee / collected, as well out of the common laws and statutes of this land, as also out of sundry learned ancient authors, and out of the assises of Pickering and Lancaster, by John Manwood ; whereunto are added the statutes of the forest, a treatise of the several offices of verderors, regardors and forestors, and the courts of attachmente. (1665 edition).
T. Observations on the propagation and
management of oak trees in general: but more immediately applying to His
Majesty's New Forest in Hampshire...for the use of the navy: in a letter
addressed to...John, Earl of
Nichols, T. Methods proposed for
decreasing the consumption of timber in the navy by means of prolonging the
duration of our ships of war: with observations on fastening ships with iron
knees: to which are added, some general remarks on the present timbered state
of the kingdom.
Oeconomy of his Majesty's Navy Office containing the several duties of the
Commissioners and principal Officers thereof. Being the first rules
established for them by ... the Duke of
Arthur, C.B. The Remaking of the English Navy by Admiral St. Vincent - Key to the Victory over Napoleon: The Great Unclaimed Naval Revolution, 1795-1805. 1986.
S-E. From tar to timber: studies in
foreign trade, 1660-1860.
S-E. 'North European timber exports to
K.E. 'Vegetational history of the
Baugh, D.A., British naval
administration in the age of
W.H. Prices and wages in
Binney, J.E.D. British public finance and administration, 1774-92. 1958.
J. ‘Forests, Chases, Warrens and Parks in Medieval
Broad, J. 'Whigs and deer-stealers in other guises: a return to the origins of the Black Act'. Past & Present. 119 (1988), 56-72.
Bushaway, R.W. ‘From custom to crime:
wood-gathering in 18th and early 19th century
Clow, A., and Clow, N.L. 'The timber famine and the development of technology'. Annals of Science. 12, 1956, 85-102.
A.V. 'A radically different bureaucracy: dockyard administration in the late
seventeenth century', in Cogar, W.B. (ed.), New interpretations in naval
history: selected papers from the twelfth Naval History Symposium held at the
D. 'Forest trees and ships'. Hants.
Coleman, D. 'Naval Dockyards under the later Stuarts'. Economic History Review (2nd Series). 6, 1953-1954, 24-37.
E.J.T. 'Changing Markets for coppice produce and coppice management in
E.J.T. 'Woodlands and woodland industries in
J.C. The Royal forests of
Crimmin, P. K. '"A Great Object with us to Procure this Timber...", The Royal Navy's search for Ship timber in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southern Russia, 1803-1815'. Internat. J. Marit. Hist. IV, 1992, 83-115.
Crimmin, P. 'The Financial and Clerical Establishments of the Admiralty Office'. Mariner’s Mirror. 55, 1969, 299-309.
Crimmin, P.K. 'Searching for British naval stores: sources and strategy c.1802-1860'. The Great Circle: journal of the Australian Association for Maritime History. 18, 1996, 113-24.
P.K. 'Searching for naval timber in the Adriatic' in Kessler, J. (ed.) Français et Anglais en Méditerranée, de la
Révolution française à l'indépendance de la Grèce (1789-1830):
Crook, D. 'The records of forest eyres in the Public Record Office, 1179 to 1670'. J. Soc. Archivists. 17, 1996, 183-93.
A.L. Introduction to Eighteenth Century Documents Relating to the Royal
Forests. The Sheriffs and Smuggling.
Dodds, J., and Moore. J. Building the wooden fighting ship. 1984.
Christopher, 'Medieval Forests and
Ehrman, J. The Navy in the war of William III 1689-1697: its state and direction. 1953.
Eliasson, P., and Nilsson, S.G. '”You should hate
young oaks and young noblemen": the environmental history of oaks in
eighteenth and nineteenth century
Evelyn, J. Sylva, 1675, Reprint of Fourth Edition, 1938,
Fincham, J. A History of Naval Architecture. 1851.
Fisher, E.F.S. (comp.) Lists of officers who have held local charges of naval stores… 1514 A.D. to 1965, together with some historical notes on the growth and functioning of the dockyards, bases, etc., listed. 1965.
Flinn, M.L. 'Timber and the advance of technology- a reconsideration...'. Annals of Science. 17, 1961, 109.
N. 'The management history and structure of unenclosed woods in the
Godwin G.N. 'Buckler's Hard and its ships'. Proc. Hants. Field Club and Archaeol. Soc. 2, 1890, 59-76.
Goriup, P. (ed.). The New Forest woodlands a management history. 1999.
H. ‘Profits and privileges: forest and commercial interests in Ancien régime
R.K.J. The Royal Forests of
Haas, J. M. A management odyssey: the Royal Dockyards, 1714-1914. 1994.
Hammersley, G. 'The Crown Woods and their exploitation in the 16th and 17th centuries'. Bull. Instit. Hist. Res. 30, 1957, 137-63.
G. 'The revival of
Harris, E., Harris. J., and James, E.D.G. Oak, a British history. Bollington. 2003.
C. The verderers and
Hart, C.E. The Royal forest- a history of Deans woods as producers of timber. Oxford, 1966.
Hattendorf, J.B. ‘Review of Haas “Management odyssey”’. Amer. Hist. Rev. 98, 1995, 1568-9
J.B. et al. (eds.) British Naval
Documents 1204-1960, .Naval Record Society vol. 131,
Holdsworth, W. (Goodhart, A.L. etc. eds.) History of English law. 7th edn 1956.
Hoyle, R. ‘"Sharing the hog": reform of the estates, c. 1598-1640’, in Hoyle Estates…
Hoyle, R. ‘Disafforestation and drainage: the Crown as entrepreneur?’ in Hoyle Estates…
R.W. (ed.) The estates of the English
Hurstfield, J. 'The profits of fiscal feudalism, 1541-1602'. Econ. Hist. Rev. (2nd ser.) 8, 1955, 53-61.
James, G F, 'Some Further Aspects of Admiralty Administration 1689-1714'. Bull. Instit. Hist. Res. 17, 1939-40, 13-27.
James, G. F. 'The Admiralty Establishment 1759'. Bull. Instit. Hist. Res. 16, 1938-39, 24-7.
James, G. F., and Shaw, J. J. S. 'Admiralty Administration and Personnel 1619–1714'. Bull. Instit. Hist. Res. xiv, 1936–7, 10–24, 172–80.
Kitson, H. ‘The early history of
R. 'The performance of the Royal dockyards' in The American Revolution and
the sea: proceedings of the 14th International Conference of the
International Commission for Maritime History. 1974.
Knight, R.J.B. ‘The administration of
the royal dockyards in
Knight, R.J.B., ‘New England forests
and British seapower:
P. ‘From swanimote to disafforestation:
Latham, B. Timber: A Historical Survey of its Development and Distribution. 1957.
Lavery, B. Building the Wooden
Walls. The design and construction of the 74-gun ship Valiant.
P. Historical inquiries, concerning forests and forest laws with
topographical remarks, upon the ancient and modern state of the New Forest,
Lincoln, M. Representing the Royal Navy: British sea power,
Lockwood, H.H. ‘Those greedy hunters after concealed Lands’ in Neale, K., (ed.) An Essex tribute; essays presented to Frederick G. Emmison as a tribute to his life and work for Essex history and archives. 1987.
M. ‘Timber Trade on the
A.J. 'The Navy and
Middleton, R. ‘Naval administration in the age of Pitt and Anson, 1755-63’ in Black. J., and Woodfine, P. (eds.) The British Navy and the use of new power in the 18th century. 1988.
Middleton, R. 'The Visitation of the Royal Dockyards, 1749'. Mariner’s Mirror. 77, 1991, 21-30.
S.W. Fruitless Trees: Portuguese
Morriss, R. ‘Charles Middleton, Lord Barham, 1726-1813’ in Le Fevre. P. (ed.) Precursors of Nelson: British admirals of the Eighteenth century.
Morriss, R. The royal dockyards during
the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
Murray, O. A. R. 'The Admiralty'. Mariner's Mirror. 23, 1937, 13–35, 129–47, 316–31; 24, 1938, 101–4, 204–4, 204–5, 329–52, 458–78; 25, 1939, 89–111, 216–28, 328–38.
Neesom, J.M. Commoners:
common right, enclosure and social change in
Neilson, N. 'The Forests' in Willard, J.F., and Morris, W.A. (eds.) The English Government at work 1327-1336, vol. 1. 1940.
M. A History of the Administration of
the Royal Navy 1509-1660.
Outhwaite, R.B. ‘Who bought crown Lands? The pattern of purchase 1589-1603’. Bull. Instit. Hist. Res. 44, 1971, 18-34.
Packard, J.J. 'Sir Robert Seppings and the timber problem', Mariner's Mirror. 64, 1978, 145-56.
Perlin, J. A
G.F. and Tubbs, C.R. 'Woodland regeneration in the
Pettit, P.A.J. The Royal forests of Northamptonshire, 1558-1714. Northamptonshire Rec. Soc. vol. 23. Northampton. 1968.
Pool, B. Navy Board Contracts 1660-1832. 1966.
Rackham, O. ‘The Growing and Transport
of timber and underwood’ in McGrail, S.
(ed.) Woodworking Techniques before A.D. 1500: Papers presented to a
Radkau, J. 'Wood and Forestry in German History: in Quest of an Environmental Approach'. Environment and History. 2, 1996, 63-76.
P. Minstead, Life in a 17th century
Rodger, N.A.M. The Admiralty. Lavenham, 1979.
Rodger, N.A.M. The Wooden World. An anatomy of the Georgian navy. 1986.
Sainty, J.C. Admiralty Officials 1660-1870. 1975.
P.S. The Silviculture of Trees used in
Schama, S. Landscape and memory. 1995.
Schumpeter, E.B. English overseas trade statistics 1697-1808. Oxford. 1961.
Spencer, F. 'Lord Sandwich, Russian masts, and American independence'. Mariner's Mirror. 44, 1958, 116-27.
D. 'Silvicultural inclosure in the
D.J. A Calendar of
D.J. 'Orders and rules of the
D.J. 'Silvicultural enclosure in the
H. 'J. Norden's survey of medieval coppices in the
Talbot, J.E. The Pen & Ink Sailor: Charles Middleton and the King’s Navy, 1778-1813. 1998.
J.R. (ed.) Pepys' Memoirs of the Royal
Tanner, J.R. (ed.) Private Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers of Samuel Pepys, 1679-1703. 1926.
Thirgood, J.V. Man and the
Thirsk, J. ‘The Crown as projector of its own estates, from Elizabeth I to Charles I’ in Hoyle Estates…
Tomlinson, H. ‘The Ordnance office and the King’s forts, 1660-1714’. Architec. Hist. 16, 1973, 4-24.
Tomlinson, H.C. Guns & Government- the Ordnance office under the later Stuarts. 1979.
H.C. 'The Ordnance Office and the Navy, 1660-1714'.
G.J. ‘Justices of the Forest south of the
G.J. Select pleas of the
Turton, R.B. The forest of Pickering. North Riding Rec. Soc. (NS) 1, 1894.
Tyson, B. ‘Oak for the navy- a case study, 1700-1703’. Cumb. & Westmor. Antiq. Soc. 87, 1987, 117-27.
Watkins, C. ‘Themes in the history of European woods and forests’ in Watkins, C. (ed.) European woods and forests. Studies in cultural history. 1998, 1-10.
P. ‘The construction, repair and maintenance of the battle fleet of the Royal
navy 1793-1818’ in Black, J., and Woodfine, P. (eds.) The British Navy and
the Use of Naval Power in the Eighteenth Century.
Webb, P.L.C. ‘The rebuilding and repair of the fleet, 1783-1793’. Bull. Instit. Hist. Res. 50, 1977, 194-209.
R. Historic forests of
Wickwire, F. 'Admiralty Secretaries and the British Civil Service'. Huntingdon Library Quarterly. 28, 1965, 235-54.
Wrey, E.C. 'A Treatise of the Laws of the
Yates, E. M. 'The historical geography of the Royal Forest of Wolmer, Hampshire'. Landscape Ecology. 16, 1979, 24-30.
Online (as at 30 August 2004)
Report of the Committee Who Were Appointed to Enquire in What Manner His Majesty's Navy May be more effectually Supplied with Naval Stores. 1782. http://www.bopcris.ac.uk/bop1688/ref1790.html
The Admiralty 1775 to 1783. http://www.hmsrichmond.org/admiralty.htm